Synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal carbides and carbonitrides by immersing select MAX phase powders in hydrofluoric acid, HF

Michael Naguib, Olha Mashtalir, Joshua Carle, Volker Presser, Jun Lu, Lars Hultman, Yury Gogotsi, and Michel W. Barsoum, “Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Carbides”, ACS Nano, Vol 6, No. 2, 1322-1331, 2012

ACerS' Ross Coffin Purdy Award will recognize the article, which was the first to describe a facile method to produce a large family of two-dimensional layered, early transition metal carbides and nitrides, labeled MXenes. The latter are so-called because they are produced by selective etching of the A-group element — aluminum in this case — from an even larger family of layered solids labeled the MAX phases. The MAX phases were in turn discovered by Michel Barsoum, Ph.D., and co-workers roughly 15 years ago at Drexel University.synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal carbides and carbonitrides by immersing select MAX phase powders in hydrofluoric acid

Barsoum, A.W. Grosvenor and Distinguished Professor at Drexel University, and Distinguished University Professor and Trustee Chair Yury Gogotsi, Ph.D., also from Drexel Materials, were co-authors of the award-winning paper, along with students Michael Naguib, Olha Mashtalir and Joshua Carle, together with collaborators from Linkoping University in Sweden.

The annual Ross Coffin Purdy Award recognizes researchers "judged to have made the most valuable contribution to ceramic technical literature." The ACerS board unanimously agreed to grant the honor to the Barsoum and Gogotsi team's work. The award will be presented in October during the Materials Science and Technology Conference in Montréal, Canada.

MXenes have potential uses in a broad range of energy and electronics applications, including lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. The materials' layered structure resembles that of graphene — hence the suffix ene — a two-dimensional sheet of carbon, but its chemistry is more complex and more versatile.

"The research reported in this paper is an exciting advance in this new family of materials for which the applications are just beginning to be envisioned," said Dawn Bonnell, Ph.D., Trustee Chair Professor in the Materials Science Department of the University of Pennsylvania and director of the Nano/Bio Interface Center. Bonnell nominated Barsoum's group for the honor.The SEM image captured by Babak Anasori shows MXene particles

In their ACS Nano paper "Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Carbides," the authors acknowledge funding from the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Office of Vehicle Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy, the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's Ben Franklin Technology Development Authority and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation.

Ross Coffin Purdy, in whose honor this award is given, served The American Ceramic Society for 24 years as General Secretary and Editor of its publications. He was the recipient of many awards, a Fellow and Honorary Life Member, and President of the Society.

The American Chemical Society is a nonprofit organization chartered by the U.S. Congress. With more than 163,000 members, ACS is the world’s largest scientific society and a global leader in providing access to chemistry-related research through its multiple databases, peer-reviewed journals and scientific conferences.

Michael Naguib, Olha Mashtalir, Joshua Carle, Volker Presser, Jun Lu, Lars Hultman, Yury Gogotsi, and Michel W. Barsoum, “Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Carbides”, ACS Nano, Vol 6, No. 2, 1322-1331, 2012


Secondary electron SEM micrographs for (A) Ti3AlC2 particle before treatment, which is typical of unreacted MAX phases, (B) Ti3AlC2 after HF treatment, (C) Ti2AlC after HF treatment, (D) Ta4AlC3 after HF treatment, (E) TiNbAlC after HF treatment, and (F) Ti3AlCN after HF treatment. In (B–F), the exfoliation is obvious.Herein we report on the synthesis of two-dimensional transition metal carbides and carbonitrides by immersing select MAX phase powders in hydrofluoric acid, HF. The MAX phases represent a large (>60 members) family of ternary, layered, machinable transition metal carbides, nitrides, and carbonitrides. Herein we present evidence for the exfoliation of the following MAX phases: Ti2AlC, Ta4AlC3, (Ti0.5,Nb0.5)2AlC, (V0.5,Cr0.5)3AlC2, and Ti3AlCN by the simple immersion of their powders, at room temperature, in HF of varying concentrations for times varying between 10 and 72 h followed by sonication. The removal of the “A” group layer from the MAX phases results in 2-D layers that we are labeling MXenes to denote the loss of the A element and emphasize their structural similarities with graphene. The sheet resistances of the MXenes were found to be comparable to multilayer graphene. Contact angle measurements with water on pressed MXene surfaces showed hydrophilic behavior.

Keywords: MXene; two-dimensional materials; carbides; carbonitrides; exfoliation

Two-dimensional (2-D) materials, such as graphene, are known to have unique properties that, in turn, can potentially lead to some promising applications. Over the years, other 2-D materials with different chemistries have been synthesized by exfoliation of layered 3-D precursors such as boron nitride, metal chalcogenides (e.g., MoS2, WS2, oxides, and hydroxides). In most, if not all, of these cases, the initial bonding between the layers was relatively weak, making the structure amenable to exfoliation.



News from MRC.ORG.UA

MXene Coating Could Prevent Electromagnetic Interference in Wearable Devices

mxene-emi-fabricResearchers at Drexel University’s College of Engineering have reported that MXene coated fabric is highly effective for blocking electromagnetic waves and potentially harmful radiation. The discovery is a key development for efforts to weave technological capabilities into clothing and accessories. 

MRC and Drexel collaborative article on Scalable MXene synthesis is listed among the most accessed in Advanced Engineering Materials journal for the whole year

bulk MXene

This article is also Highly Cited in Web of Science (top 1% of all papers in the field).

H2020 MSCA RISE CanBioSe project activities - EsR/ER training and scientific seminar held in MRC, Kyiv, Ukraine, July 30-August 01, 2020

Canbiose project training and seminar

Training of early-staged researchers involved in CanBioSe research works on nanomaterials processing and scientific seminar on Advances in nanomaterials research for biomedical applications, were held with invited experts.

Scalable Production System for the Promising, 2D Nanomaterials MXenes

altFor one of the most promising new types of 2D nanomaterials, MXenes, that’s no longer a problem. Researchers at Drexel University and the Materials Research Center in Ukraine have designed a system that can be used to make large quantities of the material while preserving its unique properties

CANBIOSE project participant from MRC completed secondment visit to partner organization Vilnius University, Lithuania, on February-March 2020 due to CANBIOSE project

altCANBIOSE project participant from MRC performed secondment visit to project partner organization Vilnius University, Lithuania, on February 24 - March 14 2020.

H2020 MSCA RISE SALSETH project participant from MRC V. Balitskiy started secondment at University of Novi Sad, Serbia

altSALSETH project participant from MRC Vitalii Balitskiy was hosted by partners from University of Novi Sad (UNS), Serbia, during his secondment visit according to the project plan.

SALSETH Project Kick-off meeting was held in University of Novi Sad, Serbia, on february 28, 2020

altResearch team from Materials Research Centre (MRC), Kyiv, Ukraine, was represented by Vitalii Balitskiy, who made a presentation to project partners about the MRC company, its capabilities, current research projects and main activities.

The science of the future and the use of intelligent nanomaterials in advanced technologies. Lecture by Professor Yury Gogotsi for students, schoolchildren of Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute,Feb 24, 2020


The science of the future and the use of smart nanomaterials in new technologies. Lecture by Professor Yury Gogotsi for students, and schoolchildren of the Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, February 27, 2020

Horizon 2020 NANO2DAY project participant A.Stepura from Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Science (Bratislava, Slovakia) was hosted by Materials Research Center (MRC), Kiev, Ukraine, on December 2019-February 2020

pisas--secondment-to-mrc-jan-2020_13.jpg - 86.27 KbAnastasiia Stepura from Polymer Institute Slovak Academy of Science (Bratislava, Slovakia) was hosted by Materials Research Centre  on December 2019- February 2020 during her secondment performing research works due to H2020 NANO2DAY project.

H2020 NANO2DAY project participants from MRC Veronika Zahorodna and Oleksiy Gogotsi visited partner organization Polymer Instityte SAS, Bratislava, Slovakia on January 2020

altResearchers from the Materials Research Center (MRC), Kiev, Ukraine,  Oleksiy Gogotsi and Veronika Zahorodna visited Horizon 2020 NANO2DAY project partner organization Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Science, Bratislava, Slovakia on January 2020. In cooperation with PISAS colleagues they were working on MXene doped polymer nanocomposites.

H2020 NANO2DAY project participant from MRC Ivan Hryshko was visiting project partner organization University of Latvia, Riga, on November-December 2019

altResearch engineer from MRC Ivan Hryshko is being visiting the University of Latvia, where he held a seminar on MXenes

Secondment of project participants from MRC O. Gogotsi and V. Zahorodna to project partners from LNEC under Horizon 2020 MSCA RISE Project №690968 NANOGUARD2AR, 12/11-11/12/2019, Lisboan, Portugal

altMRC Director O. Gogotsi and EsR Veronika Zahorodna in a secondment to LNEC, Lisboan, Portugal participated in a work meeting discussing project results and performing engineering research works due to H2020 MSCA RISE project No 690968 NANOGUARD2AR.

Horizon 2020 CANBIOSE project participants from Materials Research Center (MRC), Kiev, Ukraine visited partner organization Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland, on October 27-November 27, 2019

altIn cooperation with AMU colleagues they were working on nanomaterials testing and characterization.


altThe symposium brought together leading international experts and those researchers who are just entering the exciting world of 2D carbides and nitrides to explore new synthesis methods, better understand properties and find new applications of MXenes.

Horizon 2020 NANO2DAY project participants from the Materials Research Center (MRC), Kiev, Ukraine, Zozulia Iuliia and Vitalii Balitskiy visited the partner organization Kaunas University of Technology, Kaunas, Lithuania on August 2019 - October 2019

altIn cooperation with KTU colleagues they were working on engineering simulations of mechanical  properties of nanomaterials and nanocomposites.