Scale-up of MXene Synthesis

Scale-up of MXene Synthesis

O. Gogtosi ab, V. Zahorodna ab, Serhienko A. a, I. Hrysko a, Y. Zozulya a, V. Balitskyi a, M. Seredych c, B. Anasori c, Y. Gogotsi c

a Materials Research Center, Kiev 03680, Ukraine

b National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine, Dnipro 49600, Ukraine

c A. J. Drexel Nanomaterials Institute, and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, United States

Corresponding author: Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript


The family of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal carbides and nitrides, MXenes, has been expanding rapidly since the discovery of Ti3C2 MXene in 2011 [1]. More than 20 different MXenes have been synthesized, and the structure and properties of numerous other MXenes have been predicted using density functional theory calculations [2].

Two-dimensional (2D) materials with a thickness of a few nanometers or less can be used as single sheets due to their unique properties or as building blocks, to assemble a variety of structures. MXenes properties can be tunable for a large variety of applications [3]that directly lead to their use for electromagnetic shielding [4], transparent conductors, light-to-heat energy conversion, new advanced lasers and photothermal therapy.

Synthesis of MXene typically begins with etching the A-element atomic layers (for example, aluminum) in a MAX phase (for example, Ti3AlC2) with HF solution and/or a mixture of fluoride salts and acids at room temperature or slightly higher temperature. After the etching is finished (complete removal of the A-element layers), washing must be applied to remove residual acid and reaction products (salts) and achieve a safe pH (6). After the pH is increased to 6, and eventual intercalation of large organic molecules and subsequent delamination completed, the multilayered MXene flakes or single nanosheets can be collected via vacuum-assisted filtration and then dried in vacuum [5].

MXenes can be deposited form solution by spin, spray, or dip coating, painted or printed, or fabricated in a variety of ways. Synthesis conditions used to produce MXenes influence the resulting properties and thus are directly related to the performance of MXenes in their applications [5]. In the laboratory, researchers synthesize MXene in gram quantities, and it is very difficult to repeat the synthesis conditions in order to obtain a material with the same repeatable properties.

For scaling up the laboratory process and to obtain material in larger quantities (up to 200 g per batch) of good quality with repeatable properties, a pilot laboratory line was developed [5]), which allows us to control the etching process and adjust its basic parameters - temperature, mixing speed, recording and storing all necessary data for analysis or to repeat the conditions during subsequent syntheses to obtain a MXene with repeatable properties. In addition, since the acidic etching process is accompanied by the release of heat, a specially developed sealed reactor allows safe and reliable synthesis. The computer control system provides the desired precursor feed rate and the optimal synthesis temperature profile [6].


[1] Two-Dimensional Nanocrystals Produced by Exfoliation of Ti3AlC2. M. Naguib, et al., Advanced Materials, 23, 4248 (2011)

[2] Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of 2D Carbides (MXenes). Gogotsi, O. G., Zahorodna, V. V., Balitskiy, V. Y., Zozulya, Y. I., Gogotsi, H. G., Brodnikovskiy, M. P., Gubynskyi, M. V., Fedorov, S. S., Alhabeb, M., Meng, F., Anasori B., Gogotsi, Y. Abstracts Book of 5th International Conference, Nanobiophysics: Fundamental and Applied Aspects, October 2-5, 2017, Kharkiv, Ukraine

[3] Organic-Base-Driven Intercalation and Delamination for the Production of Functionalized Titanium Carbide Nanosheets with Superior Photothermal Therapeutic Performance. J. Xuan, et al., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 55, 1 – 7 (2016)

[4] F. Shahzad, M. Alhabeb, C.B. Hatter, B, Anasori, S.M. Hong, C. M. Koo, Y. Gogotsi, Electromagnetic Interference Shielding with 2D Transition Metal Carbides (MXenes), Science, 353 (6304) 1137-1140 (2016)

[5] M. Alhabeb, K. Maleski, B. Anasori, P. Lelyukh, L. Clark, S. Sin, Y. Gogotsi, Guidelines for Synthesis and Processing of 2D Titanium Carbide (Ti3C2Tx MXene), Chemistry of Materials, 29 (18) 7633-7644 (2017)

[6] O.O. Honcharuk, V.Y. Balitskiy, R.V. Voron, M.P.Brodnikovskiy, O.G. Gogotsi, V.V. Zahorodna, Y.I. Zozulya, M. Alhabeeb, B. Anasori, K. Malesky, Y. Gogotsi. Synthesis and Optical Properties of 2D Carbide MXenes, Book of Abstracts for 11th International Scientific-Technical Conference "Composite Materials", National Technical University of Ukraine "Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute", April 2018, рр.118-120. UDC 542;546;62.

 Acknowledgement. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No 777810.


O. Gogtosi, V. Zahorodna, I. Hrysko, A. Serhienko, Y. Zozulya, V. Balitskiy, M. Seredych, B. Anasori, Y. Gogotsi. Scale-up of MXene Synthesis, 2018 IEEE 8th International Conference on Nanomaterials: Applications & Properties, Zatoka, September 9-14, 2018

 2018 IEEE 8th International Conference on Nanomaterials: Applications & Properties


To contact MXene supplier Carbon-Ukraine company (Y-Carbon ltd)  or to get a quota with a price on MXene or MAX phase 


2018 IEEE 8th International Conference on Nanomaterials: Applications & Properties, September 09-14, 2018

2018 IEEE International Conference on “Nanomaterials Applications & Properties”At the poster session of the conference Oleksiy Gogotsi presented two poster presentations on advanced nanomaterials for different applications, prepared with colleagues from Drexel University, USA, and Jilin University, China



News from MRC.ORG.UA

Drexel's MXene Filter Materials will be used for Wearable Artificial Kidney Technology

MXene pores“Our fundamental study of titanium carbide MXene supported by NSF showed that MXene is biocompatible, able of adsorbing a variety of small molecules, and holds a lot of promise in medical applications, so it is exciting to see it applied for improving and really changing dialysis — an area of need in health care that can help millions of people,” said Yury Gogotsi, PhD, Distinguished University and Bach professor in Drexel’s College of Engineering, who is a world leader in developing and studying MXenes.

MXene Coating Could Prevent Electromagnetic Interference in Wearable Devices

mxene-emi-fabricResearchers at Drexel University’s College of Engineering have reported that MXene coated fabric is highly effective for blocking electromagnetic waves and potentially harmful radiation. The discovery is a key development for efforts to weave technological capabilities into clothing and accessories. 

MRC and Drexel collaborative article on Scalable MXene synthesis is listed among the most accessed in Advanced Engineering Materials journal for the whole year

bulk MXene

This article is also Highly Cited in Web of Science (top 1% of all papers in the field).

H2020 MSCA RISE CanBioSe project activities - EsR/ER training and scientific seminar held in MRC, Kyiv, Ukraine, July 30-August 01, 2020

Canbiose project training and seminar

Training of early-staged researchers involved in CanBioSe research works on nanomaterials processing and scientific seminar on Advances in nanomaterials research for biomedical applications, were held with invited experts.

Scalable Production System for the Promising, 2D Nanomaterials MXenes

altFor one of the most promising new types of 2D nanomaterials, MXenes, that’s no longer a problem. Researchers at Drexel University and the Materials Research Center in Ukraine have designed a system that can be used to make large quantities of the material while preserving its unique properties

CANBIOSE project participant from MRC completed secondment visit to partner organization Vilnius University, Lithuania, on February-March 2020 due to CANBIOSE project

altCANBIOSE project participant from MRC performed secondment visit to project partner organization Vilnius University, Lithuania, on February 24 - March 14 2020.

H2020 MSCA RISE SALSETH project participant from MRC V. Balitskiy started secondment at University of Novi Sad, Serbia

altSALSETH project participant from MRC Vitalii Balitskiy was hosted by partners from University of Novi Sad (UNS), Serbia, during his secondment visit according to the project plan.

SALSETH Project Kick-off meeting was held in University of Novi Sad, Serbia, on february 28, 2020

altResearch team from Materials Research Centre (MRC), Kyiv, Ukraine, was represented by Vitalii Balitskiy, who made a presentation to project partners about the MRC company, its capabilities, current research projects and main activities.

The science of the future and the use of intelligent nanomaterials in advanced technologies. Lecture by Professor Yury Gogotsi for students, schoolchildren of Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute,Feb 24, 2020


The science of the future and the use of smart nanomaterials in new technologies. Lecture by Professor Yury Gogotsi for students, and schoolchildren of the Junior Academy of Sciences of Ukraine in Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, February 27, 2020

Horizon 2020 NANO2DAY project participant A.Stepura from Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Science (Bratislava, Slovakia) was hosted by Materials Research Center (MRC), Kiev, Ukraine, on December 2019-February 2020

pisas--secondment-to-mrc-jan-2020_13.jpg - 86.27 KbAnastasiia Stepura from Polymer Institute Slovak Academy of Science (Bratislava, Slovakia) was hosted by Materials Research Centre  on December 2019- February 2020 during her secondment performing research works due to H2020 NANO2DAY project.

H2020 NANO2DAY project participants from MRC Veronika Zahorodna and Oleksiy Gogotsi visited partner organization Polymer Instityte SAS, Bratislava, Slovakia on January 2020

altResearchers from the Materials Research Center (MRC), Kiev, Ukraine,  Oleksiy Gogotsi and Veronika Zahorodna visited Horizon 2020 NANO2DAY project partner organization Polymer Institute of Slovak Academy of Science, Bratislava, Slovakia on January 2020. In cooperation with PISAS colleagues they were working on MXene doped polymer nanocomposites.

H2020 NANO2DAY project participant from MRC Ivan Hryshko was visiting project partner organization University of Latvia, Riga, on November-December 2019

altResearch engineer from MRC Ivan Hryshko is being visiting the University of Latvia, where he held a seminar on MXenes

Secondment of project participants from MRC O. Gogotsi and V. Zahorodna to project partners from LNEC under Horizon 2020 MSCA RISE Project №690968 NANOGUARD2AR, 12/11-11/12/2019, Lisboan, Portugal

altMRC Director O. Gogotsi and EsR Veronika Zahorodna in a secondment to LNEC, Lisboan, Portugal participated in a work meeting discussing project results and performing engineering research works due to H2020 MSCA RISE project No 690968 NANOGUARD2AR.

Horizon 2020 CANBIOSE project participants from Materials Research Center (MRC), Kiev, Ukraine visited partner organization Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, Poland, on October 27-November 27, 2019

altIn cooperation with AMU colleagues they were working on nanomaterials testing and characterization.


altThe symposium brought together leading international experts and those researchers who are just entering the exciting world of 2D carbides and nitrides to explore new synthesis methods, better understand properties and find new applications of MXenes.