A High Performance Pseudocapacitive Suspension Electrode for the Electrochemical Flow Capacitor

Fig. 1. (a) Operational schematic of the electrochemical flow capacitor. Uncharged slurry flows through polarized plates and charged. At the pore level, electrode neutrality is maintained at the interface between the electrolyte and active material. This slurry is then pumped into external reservoirs for storage. The process is reversed during discharge. (b) Schematic of a carbon|electrolyte interface between charged spherical particles and (c) SEM image of carbon beads.

Publication on the electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) by nanomaterials group of DNI, Drexel University, USA. EFC is a new technology for grid energy storage that is based on the fundamental principles of supercapacitors.

Fig. 1. (a) Operational schematic of the electrochemical flow capacitor. Uncharged slurry flows through polarized plates and charged. At the pore level, electrode neutrality is maintained at the interface between the electrolyte and active material. This slurry is then pumped into external reservoirs for storage. The process is reversed during discharge. (b) Schematic of a carbon|electrolyte interface between charged spherical particles and (c) SEM image of carbon beads.

Rus На русском Eng In English

Electrochimica Acta,Volume 111, 30 November 2013, Pages 888–897

A High Performance Pseudocapacitive Suspension Electrode for the Electrochemical Flow Capacitor

  • Kelsey B. Hatzella,
  • Majid Beidaghia,
  • Jonathan W. Camposa,
  • Christopher R. Dennisona, b,
  • Emin C. Kumburb,
  • Yury Gogotsia, 1, Этот e-mail адрес защищен от спам-ботов, для его просмотра у Вас должен быть включен Javascript
  • a A. J. Drexel Nanotechnology Institute, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
  • b Electrochemical Energy Systems Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA

Fig. 2. SEM image of activated carbon beads. (a) As-received beads with pristine surface, (b) Carbon beads from slurry after being cycled 1000 times in 2 M KOH and 0.139 M PPD. Insets show magnified images of the bead surfaces.The electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) is a new technology for grid energy storage that is based on the fundamental principles of supercapacitors. The EFC benefits from the advantages of both supercapacitors and flow batteries in that it is capable of rapid charging/discharging, has a long cycle lifetime, and enables energy storage and power to be decoupled and optimized for the desired application.

The unique aspect of the EFC is that it utilizes a flowable carbon-electrolyte suspension (slurry) for capacitive energy storage. Similar to traditional supercapacitor electrodes, this aqueous slurry is limited in terms of energy density, when compared to batteries. To address this limitation, in this study a pseudocapacitive additive has been explored to increase capacitance. Fig. 3. Standard two-proton/two-electron oxidation and reduction reaction of p-phenylenediamine to p-phenylenediimine. (dark grey, dark blue and white correspond to carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen atoms).

Fig. 4. Capacitance as a function of changing concentrations of p-phenylenediamine and sweep rates ranging from 2 mV s−1 to 100 mV s−1.A carbon-electrolyte slurry prepared with p-phenylenediamine (PPD), a redox mediator, shows an increased capacitance on the order of 86% when compared with KOH electrolytes, and a 130% increase when compared to previously reported neutral electrolyte based slurries. The redox-mediated slurry also appears to benefit from a decrease in ohmic resistance with increasing concentrations of PPD, most likely a result of an increase in the ionic diffusion coefficient. Among the tested slurries, a concentration of 0.139 M of PPD in 2 M KOH electrolyte yields the largest capacitance and rate handling performance in both cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic cycling experiments.

The improved performance is attributed to the addition of quick faradaic reactions at the electrolyte-electrode interface as PPD undergoes a two-proton/two-electron reduction and oxidation reaction during cycling.

Source: www.sciencedirect.com

Related Items: Carbon Materials as a Flowable Electrode in Electrochemical Flow Capacitors

 

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